The $languages array is defined in functions/i18n.php (which has been
moved to include/languages.php as of SquirrelMail 1.5.2) and defines translations
that are enabled in SquirrelMail. Starting with SquirrelMail 1.5.1, only the English
language entry is defined in the core; other languages are added automatically to the
$languages array from a file in the locale pack:
Format of array:
$languages['language_code']['key'] = 'value';
Possible array key names:
The name of the language in English. HTML encoding must be used for
any 8-bit symbols.
The native language name (the name of the language in that language
itself). HTML encoding must be used for any 8-bit symbols. This name
is shown when $show_alternative_names is enabled in
config/config.php (or use the configuration utiltiy and
choose "10. Language settings" --> "3. Show alternative language names")
(for SquirrelMail 1.5.0 and up).
The character set used for the translation.
The full locale name (in "xx_XX.charset" format or other format required
by PHP gettext functions). Starting with 1.4.4/1.5.1 and up, 'value' can
contain an array. If the PHP version is older than 4.3.0, the system will
use only the first locale name listed in the array. The first locale name
must be compatible with the FreeBSD system locale names. Under all other
setups, if the first locale is not supported, SquirrelMail will continue
to try the other locales in the order given in this array. Developers
can check for supported locale names on their system by checking the
contents of, for example, /usr/lib/locale/ (RedHat/Fedora).
Any number of aliased language codes can be linked to a given translation
by creating one ALIAS entry for each link. The 'language_code' for the
alias should contain the aliased language code and the 'value' should
contain the language code SquirrelMail uses to store the actual translation.
For example, the
Translation is stored in SquirrelMail as "nb_NO", but it also has
an alias for its ISO-639-1 code "nb". Note that while you may
string together any number of aliases (for example, "xx" ==> "yy"
==> "no" ==> "nb_NO"), the final code must point to a language
that has a NAME and CHARSET defined in the $languages
array. Aliases are generally used to unify two and four-letter
language codes for the same language (such as "sv" and "sv_SE",
which should both be the same Swedish translation). See:
ISO 639 list and
country code list
The text direction of the language. This is used to indicate
right-to-left languages and is not needed otherwise. Possible
values are 'rtl' or 'ltr' (when undefined, it defaults to 'ltr').
XTRA_CODE functions provide way to change interface behavior, when translation
requires special handling of some SquirrelMail functions. Functions are enabled
by setting XTRA_CODE option in $languages array and including appropriate
functions in locale/language_code/setup.php (SquirrelMail 1.5.x) or
functions/i18n.php (SquirrelMail 1.4.x). First part of function name is
word listed in $languages['language_code']['XTRA_CODE'] value. Second part is one
of special keywords. Possible keywords:
Used in src/compose.php, src/i18n.php, src/view_text.php, and functions/mime.php.
Requires mbstring support.
Used in src/compose.php, and src/read_body.php.
Used in functions/mime.php. Should accept one string
argument and return correctly encoded MIME header string.
Used in functions/mime.php. Returning function.
Used in functions/mime.php.
Used in functions/imap_utf7_local.php. Returning function.
Used in functions/imap_utf7_local.php. Returning function.
Used in functions/mailbox_display.php. Returning function.
When SquirrelMail generates HTML pages, it uses charset defined in translation
selected by end user. Interface can display emails encoded in different
charsets. In order to display characters that might be unsupported by user's
charset, SquirrelMail uses decoding functions that convert non us-ascii symbols
into HTML entities. All decoding functions are stored in functions/decode/
By default SquirrelMail includes decoding functions that support iso-8859-x,
windows-125x, utf-8, us-ascii, koi8-r, koi8-u, tis-620, ns-4551_1, iso-ir-111,
cp855 and cp866 charsets. Other decoding functions are distributed in separate
packages. Separate packaging of decoding functions is supported from
SquirrelMail 1.4.4 and 1.5.0. us-ascii decoding replaces all 8bit symbols with
question marks. UTF-8 decoding function does not enable decoding of five and six
byte UTF-8 symbols by default (code is commented) and replaces all incorrectly
formated 8bit symbols with question marks.
Some decoding functions might require PHP recode extension or PHP 4.3+ mbstring
extension. If your PHP installation does not support them, you might be using
slower and cpu/memory intensive functions.
IMAP folder names use UTF7-IMAP charset. Folder names that are stored in
conf.pl must be encoded in UTF7-IMAP charset. SquirrelMail uses internal
functions that convert folder names from/to UTF7-IMAP charset. By default those
functions work with ISO-8859-1 charset. Other charsets are supported only
when PHP mbstring extension supports them.
TODO: Write independent implementation of charset to UTF7-IMAP conversion.
From v.1.5.1 SquirrelMail includes support for plural forms. It allows the use
of correct translation forms with numbers. For example. "We have %s squirrel
on the roof." and "We have %s squirrels on the roof." can be written in one
function call without checking actual number of squirrels. The Gettext
functions also deal with non English languages that might use different word
forms for two, five, ten or more units.
Plural forms support is provided by ngettext functions that exist in the PHP
Gettext extension as of PHP 4.2.0 and by ngettext function replacements from
the php-gettext classes (http://savannah.nongnu.org/projects/php-gettext).
In order to provide identical functionality when the PHP Gettext extension does
not have ngettext support, SquirrelMail uses bindtextdomain and textdomain
wrappers that load the missing functions.
If plugin authors want to use ngettext functions without increasing PHP
requirements to 4.2.0 with Gettext support, they should require at least
SquirrelMail 1.5.1, and use the sq_change_text_domain function instead of
separate calls to bindtextdomain and textdomain. If sq_change_text_domain
cannot be used, the sq_bindtextdomain function should be used instead of
bindtextdomain and the sq_textdomain function should be used instead of the
textdomain function. If these latter two SquirrelMail wrapper functions are
used (but again, please use sq_change_text_domain), there is no need to issue
a call to sq_bindtextdomain when a plugin reverts to the SquirrelMail domain.
More information about ngettext and plural forms can be found at:
SquirrelMail uses set_up_language() function to setup language environment.
Environment is setup automatically when include/validate.php is loaded.
SquirrelMail gets interface language from three places:
a) user preference. It is set in Options -> Display Preferences -> Language.
preference uses language key. If user's preferences are not available (user
is not logged in), system tries to extract language value from
b) default SquirrelMail language that is set in configuration
c) preferred language setting provided by browser. It is used only when default
SquirrelMail language is set to empty string
If language information is not available, SquirrelMail falls back to US English
If the PHP installation allows modifying environment variable TZ, SquirrelMail allows
the end users to select different time zone in their preferences. It can be set in
Options -> Personal Information -> Your current timezone. Time zone is
setup automatically when include/validate.php is loaded.
If TZ variable can't be modified (PHP is running is safe mode and variable
is not listed in PHP safe_mode_allowed_env_vars), user's time zone options are
not visible and interface use default webserver's time zone.
SquirrelMail 1.5.0 and older store list of available time zones in
locale/timezones.cfg. Since 1.5.1 standard times zones are moved to
include/timezones/standard.php and time zone handling differs from older
SquirrelMail versions. Time zone configuration is controlled in SquirrelMail
configuration utility (conf.pl), 4. General Options > 15. Time zone
configuration menu option. Administrator can select standard, strict, custom
and custom strict time zone handling.
Standard handling does not differ from previous SquirrelMail versions and
SquirrelMail uses GNU C geographical location based time zone names. Strict
handling uses time zone codes with offset from GMT. Strict time zones should
work on systems that don't support GNU C time zone naming. Custom and custom
strict handling uses config/timezones.php file instead of
config/timezones.php file should store $aTimeZones array with different set of
time zones. See default time zone set in include/timezones/standard.php. For
// World outside US border is a mirage
$aTimeZones['America/New_York']['NAME']='US Eastern standard time';
$aTimeZones['America/Chicago']['NAME']='US Central standard time';
// Oliver County, ND
$aTimeZones['America/North_Dakota/Center']['NAME']='US, Oliver County [ND]';
$aTimeZones['America/North_Dakota/Center']['TZ']='CST6CDT'; // CST since 1992
$aTimeZones['America/Denver']['NAME']='US Mountain standard time';
$aTimeZones['America/Los_Angeles']['NAME']='US Pacific standard time';
$aTimeZones['America/Adak']['NAME']='US, Aleutian Islands';
$aTimeZones['America/Phoenix']['TZ']='MST7'; // gmt-7
$aTimeZones['America/Boise']['NAME']='US, South Idaho';
// Crawford County, Indiana
$aTimeZones['America/Indiana/Marengo']['NAME']='US, Crawford County [IN]';
// Starke County, Indiana
$aTimeZones['America/Indiana/Knox']['NAME']='US, Starke County [IN]';
// Switzerland County, Indiana
$aTimeZones['America/Indiana/Vevay']['NAME']='US, Switzerland County [IN]';
$aTimeZones['America/Louisville']['NAME']='US, Louisville [KY]';
// Wayne, Clinton, and Russell Counties, Kentucky
$aTimeZones['America/Kentucky/Monticello']['NAME']='US, Wayne, Clinton, and Russell Counties [KY]';
// The Michigan border with Wisconsin switched from EST to CST/CDT in 1973.
$aTimeZones['America/Menominee']['NAME']='US, Menominee [MI]';
GNU C time zone naming should be supported by many Unix OSes. It is recommended
way of setting time zone, because it handles historical changes and daylight
savings specific to selected geographical location. Strict time zones might
provide inaccurate or outdated time zone settings.
If modifications in TZ environment are visible in your webserver's logs (time
offset is changed), make sure that you can reproduce such behavior in latest PHP
version and report bug to PHP developers. Issue can be fixed by blocking use of
time zone (PHP safe mode and TZ is not listed in safe_mode_allowed_env_vars
setting or forced_prefs plugin) or by attaching special PHP script with
putenv('TZ=some time zone') call in PHP auto_append_file setting (suggestion is
not tested and you might have to fix all SquirrelMail exit calls).
Please note, that use of auto_append_file provides only temporally workaround
and does not fix your PHP setup. Script that runs as unprivileged user, should
be unable to affect webserver's logging system.
PHP provides the functions htmlspecialchars() and htmlentities() for HTML
string sanitizing. When SquirrelMail developers want to sanitize HTML formating
symbols, they should use htmlspecialchars() and avoid using
htmlentities() uses the ISO-8859-1 charset by default, sanitizing the
ISO-8859-1 eight bit symbols. Other charsets use the same eight bit ranges to
store different symbols, so this will break all translations not using
Depending on the parameters, htmlspecialchars() only sanitizes three,
four or five seven bit symbols (&, ", ', < and >).
htmlspecialchars() only breaks HTML encoded strings using the
ISO-2022 charsets. ISO-2022
charsets use seven bit ranges to store different symbols. The used encoding
table depends on escape sequences present in ISO-2022 text.
A charset option is added to htmlentities() and
htmlspecialchars() since PHP 4.1.0 but list of supported charsets is
limited. The fallback charset is same good old and dangerous ISO-8859-1.
If SquirrelMail charset decoding functions are used, they should apply
htmlspecialchars() to the decoded string automatically. Don't try to
use htmlspecialchars() twince on the same string, since that might
break the decoded string.